HOPE AND TIME PERSPECTIVE
The perception of oneself and the world that is based on hope coexists not only with focus on various aspects of earthly existence but also with extending beyond the lifetime, with initiating the transcendent- and transcendental time perspective. The purpose of our studies is to analyse the relationship between hope and time perspective, belief in life-after-death and the prospect of future beyond earthly existence. Hope provides the basis for our existence and attitude towards the world, but also acts as a factor that stimulates our thinking about the future and implementation of earlier projects despite obstacles. Therefore, in the studies, a hypothesis has been posed that a higher level of basic hope characterises persons with higher level of future time perspective as well as with belief in life-after-death and transcendent- and transcendental-future. Furthermore, in accordance with the Snyder’s concept of hope, the relationship between the level of hope and the time.
The study was carried out among 242 participants aged 16-78 (M = 38.45; SD = 15.1), including 114 men and 128 women. The participants were asked to define their attitude towards life-after-death and to complete questionnaires determining their level of Basic Hope (BHI-12), Goal-Directed Hope (KNS) as well as Time Perspective (ZPTI) and Future beyond earthly existence (KPTT).
There are differences between persons having different attitudes towards Life-After-Death in the level of Basic Hope (F (2.238) = 12.7, p<0.01), on the Future scale of ZPTI (F = 4.29; p = 0.015) and on the Transcendent-Future and Transcendental-Future scales of KPTT. Hope is related to a changeable level of the Time Perspective. It has been noted that there is a relationships between Basic Hope and all scales of attitude towards the past, present, and the future. Goal-Directed Hope is most strongly associated with Past-Positive and Future.
Keywords: Hope, Life-after-death, Transcendent-Future, Transcendental-Future, Time Perspective